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Category: Ethics & Morality

The French impressionists (1860-1900)

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A test of right and wrong must be the means, one would think, of ascertaining what is right or wrong, and not a consequence of having already ascertained it. Studies fail to replicate at what some consider an alarming rate. In natural language (the language we use in everyday life), words often have vague or ambiguous meanings. Yet, since "Life itself" always grows and thrives despite the hostility of the ascetic priest, life, Nietzsche implies, must somehow strengthen itself through the conflict with asceticism. [28] The philosophy of the ascetic priest bears strong resemblance to that of certain secular philosophers, who similarly detect errors what in the healthy soul takes for reality; who treat pain, multiplicity, the subject/object distinction as errors.

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World Tribunal on Iraq: Making the Case Against War

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At the foundation of every ethics and ethical choice stands the quest for certainty and the pursuit of the reasonable, which form the fundamental basis of epistemological issues and debates. Yet, given limitations on our time, energy and interest, it is difficult to see how full rationality requires us to aim to fully develop literally all of our talents. There are two worries that emerge here, both of which can be resolved rather quickly. If, as Kurtz states, "The moral principles that govern our behavior are rooted in habit and custom, feeling and fashion," 5 then the non-conformist who chooses to flout the herd morality is doing nothing more serious than acting unfashionably.

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Marius The Epicurean

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The New York Review of Books, October 24, 1991. � Necessary Suffering? But if such a conception is dominant for many centuries, and then is given up, it is a natural result that the concepts of "obligation,� of being bound or required as by a law, should remain though they had lost their root; and if the word "ought" has become invested in certain contexts with the sense of "obligation," it too will remain to be spoken with a special emphasis and special feeling in these contexts.

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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Book VII: Symposium

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Individual and cultural understandings of ethics differ widely from individual to individual; and from culture to culture… just as it did in the past. Because God is perfect goodness, he is the only one capable of fulfilling our heart’s deepest longing and facilitating the perfection at which we aim. What probably underlies Kant's formulation of the moral law as involving duties to self as well as to others is a conception of human nature that goes all the way back to St.

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Types of ethical theory

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Moving walls are generally represented in years. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. They are in essence (quite literally) of the same meaning, but simply of a different, but connected, languages. In the same way, Eudaimonia is the 'good' for a person. It is not a matter of Joe being merely a "good samaritan." Ethics originates in the individual, an inner authority, as the discernment between right and wrong; morals originate from an outer authority-usually a cultural authority whether religious or national.

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Re-reading Pío Baroja and English Literature (European

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The simplified essence of what Kant is saying is "do that which you would deem universal law." Moralized psychology or psychologized morality? In his final chapter, Rachels sets forth his own view of what a fully satisfactory moral theory must provide in the way of guidance for action and advances the principle of "Morality Without Hubris," a moral first principle combining the main strengths of both utilitarianism and Kantianism but sharing none of their weaknesses.

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Choosing to Die: Elective Death and Multiculturalism

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Two problems with the argument: The argument confuses wanting with willing.� What we end up doing is what we will to do, but is not necessarily what we want to do.� The argument leading to premise 3 slides from a truth to a falsehood.� It�s true that your decision to go to work reflects your judgment that getting paid is more important than relaxing.� But this is not equivalent to saying that you desire to get paid more than you desire to relax.� Maybe you decided that getting paid is more important simply because you have a moral duty to support your family.� In general, we sometimes do things even though it is not what we most want to do.� We sometimes act out of a sense of duty, or because our action is a means to something that we do want down the road.� An example of the latter:� the hiker pinned under a rock did not want to cut his arm off with a dull knife; in fact, he wanted very much not to do that.� But he did it anyway �he willed himself to do it�because it was necessary for something he did want � survival. ����������������� The second problem is even more straightforward � whether an action is praiseworthy depends not so much on whether it is something you want to do but on what it is you want to do.� If Fred saves the child because he wants to save a life and he desires to do the right thing, then the fact that he is doing what he most wants to do does not make him selfish or unpraiseworthy.� As Rachels puts it, (in reference to Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish businessman who risked his life saving thousands of Jews from the Nazis), �If he wanted to help other people, even at great risk to himself, that is precisely what makes him unselfish.� What else could unselfishness be, if not wanting to help others, even at some cost to oneself?� ����������������� Of course, it is logically possible for a person to help others just to feel good about himself.� If this really is the sole motive for the action, then the action has a selfish motive.� Arguably, though, this is the exception and not the rule.� Typically, when people feel good about helping others, it is at least partly because they care about those they are helping.� Whether this is true is a psychological question and can be tested empirically.� We can do a little thought experiment to imagine how such a test would go.� Suppose that Fred saves the child from the fire, but the next year (well after all of the adulation has died down) the child is killed in a car accident.� If Fred saved the child just to feel good about himself and not out of concern for the child, then there is no reason to think that Fred would feel badly about the tragic accident (after all, he got to have his good feelings, so what does he care?).� Likewise, we can ask how Fred would feel if someone else saved the child instead.� If his motives are entirely selfish, then we would expect him to be ambivalent about the outcome, or perhaps even have negative feelings towards the rescuer (since the rescuer denied him an opportunity to feel good about himself).� Even without carrying out experiments, we are quite confident that most people would not react in the way that the selfish theory predicts. ����������������� The idea that people always act only to promote their own interests has some initial plausibility, for two reasons.� One, there is so much selfish behavior in the world that it is easy to lose sight of the unselfish behavior.� (In this connection, there are individuals for whom the claim seems to be true, or at least approximately true).� Two, just about everything we do, including what we do for others, is motivated at least partially by self-interest.� But for Psychological Egoism to be true, it would have to be the case that all of our actions are motivated entirely by self-interest.

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The life of reason (Vol-1): or, The phases of human progress

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In short, human goodness ultimately consists in the proper exercise of a person’s rational capacities. The Trolley Problem and What Your Answer Tells Us about Right and Wrong, by David Edmonds, Princeton University Press, 2014 [sic] David Edmonds, with a PhD in Philosophy, is a "senior research associate" at the Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics of Oxford University. Aquinas writes: “until through the certitude of the Divine Vision the necessity of such connection be shown, the will does not adhere to God of necessity, nor to those things which are of God” (Ibid.).

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Impure Thoughts: Essays on Philosophy, Feminism, and Ethics

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Relativists argue that moral truths may change from time to time and from place to place. Whether an action is good (or bad) depends on whether it is commensurate with (or contrary to) our nature as rational beings. The repentant criminal will have a change of heart and of will, to acquire the Kantian "good will," and so subsequently will be, to the best of his ability, a better person. Eudaimonism is a philosophy originated by Aristotle that defines right action as that which leads to "well being", and which can be achieved by a lifetime of practising the virtues in one's everyday activities, subject to the exercise of practical wisdom.

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Race, Racism, and Reparations

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This coordination of ethics and ontology suggests the possibility of taking up ethics anew once we have clarified the overall existential constitution of Dasein. Hitler, Stalin, and all of the other crazies leaders made themselves gods. I focus on the central themes needed to understand Kant's moral theory. A leading researcher of values, Milton Rokeach (1973), believes that it is often necessary to become dissatisfied with yourself before you will change your behavior, attitudes, or values.

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