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It is distinguished, above all, by the development of what has become known as dramatic monody. The term derives from the early practice of singing psalms "antiphonally"- that is, with two or more alternating choirs. appoggiatura A strong-beat dissonance that resolves to a consonance; used as an expressive device in much tonal music. aria In opera or oratorio, a set piece, usually for a single performer, that expresses a character's emotion about a particular situation. arioso A singing style between aria and recitative. arpeggio A chord whose individual notes are played successively rather than simultaneously. arrangement An orchestration of a skeletal score or a reorchestration of a finished composition. ars nova The "new art" of fourteenth-century France; refers to the stylistic innovations, especially rhythmic, of composers around 1320. articulation The manner in which adjacent notes of a melody are connected or separated. art song A song focusing on artistic rather than popular expression. a tempo At the original tempo. atonality; atonal The absence of any sense of tonality. augmentation The restatement of a theme in longer note values, often twice as long (and therefore twice as slow) as the original. avant garde In the art, on the leading edge of a change in style. ballade (1) One of several types of medieval secular songs, usually in A-A-B form; (2) a type of nineteenth-century character piece for piano. ballad opera A popular eighteenth-century English dramatic form characterized by spoken dialogue on topical themes interspersed with popular folk songs. ballata A type of fourteenth-century italian secular song, similar to the French virelai. ballet The theatrical presentation of group or solo dancing of great precision to a musical accompaniment, usually with costumes and scenery and conveying a story or theme. baritone Adult male voice of moderately low range. basic set The underlying tone row in a serial composition. bass (1) The lowest adult male voice; (2) the lowest voice in a polyphonic texture. basse danse A popular Renaissance court dance for couples. blue note In blues singing or jazz, the deliberate offpitch lowering of certain pitches. blues (I)A form of African-American folk music, characterized by simple, repetitive structures and a highly flexible vocal delivery; (2) the style of singing heard in the blues. bow In string playing, a bundle of bleached horsehairs stretched tautly between the ends of a wooden stick.
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