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He travelled all over Europe to engage singers and learn the music of other composers, and thus he had among the widest acquaintance of other styles of any composer. Sprechstimme A vocal delivery, developed by Schoenberg, intermediate between speech and song. staccato (1) In musical notation, a dot placed above a notehead to indicate that it is to receive only about half its regular value; (2) in performance, the pronounced separation of adjacent notes. staff (plural, staves) In musical notation, the five horizontal lines on which one or more voices are notated. stanza In vocal works, poetic units two lines or longer of equal length and accent pattern, often sung to the same music. stem In musical notation, the vertical line attached to a notehead. stop On the organ, hand-operated levers that activate different means of sound production, thereby varying the tone color. stop (double, triple, quadruple) In string playing, the sounding of two, three, or four strings at once. stretto In a fugue, beginning an entry of a subject before a previous entry has finished. string quartet (1) Ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, and cello; (2) a work composed for this ensemble. strings Family of bowed or plucked instruments in which thin strings are stretched over a wooden frame. strophic form Vocal form in which each stanza of a poem is set to the same music. structure A term often used in music to mean shape or form. style The result of the interaction among rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, color, and shape that gives the music of a particular period or composer its distinctiveness. stylistic modulation In contemporary music, the shifting among discrete styles (for example, Renaissance and Viennese Classicism) within the same composition. subdominant (1) The fourth degree of the diatonic scale- (2) the triad built on this degree; (3) the key oriented around this degree. subject The main theme of a fugue. suite (I) A work consisting of a collection of dances, popular in the Baroque; (2) an abbreviated version of a longer work, for example, the suite from the film Star Wars. swing (I)A style of jazz playing whose flexible, improvised rhythms resist notation; (2) name used to describe big band jazz from the 1930s and 1940s. syllabic In plainchant, a style in which each syllable of text receives a single note. symbolism French literary movement of the late nineteenth century favoring suggestion and allusion rather than realism or naturalism. symphonic poem Same as tone Poem. symphony A large orchestral composition in several movements- a dominant form of public music in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. syncopation The accenting, within a well-defined meter, of weaker beats or portions of beats. synthesizer An electronic device that can create a wide variety of sounds in response to the user's instructions. system A group of staves connected by a brace, indicating that they are to be played simultaneously. tail The end of a theme. tailpiece The holder to which the strings are attached at the lower end of the body of a string instrument. tango A duple-meter dance from Argentina that was popular in Paris in the early twentieth century. tempo (Italian, "time") The speed of a piece of music, usually reckoned by the rate of its beats. tenor (1) The high male voice; (2) the second-lowest voice in a four-part texture; (3) the long-held voice in a medieval organum. texture The musical weave of a composition, such as homophonic or contrapuntal thematic anticipation The Romantic practice of introducing fragments of a theme before presenting it in its entirety. thematic transformation A Romantic technique that preserves the essential pitch identity of a theme while altering its rhythm or character. theme A self-contained melodic idea on which musical works are frequently based. theme and variations Popular form in which a theme is followed by variations that preserve the phrase lengths and harmonization of the theme while varying its rhythms, melodies, and textures. through-composed A descriptive term for a song or an instrumental movement in which there is no largescale repetition. timbre (tam-burr) Same as tone color. time signature The two numbers that appear in a score immediately after the clefs.
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