By Gary King

This publication offers an answer to the ecological inference challenge, which has plagued clients of statistical equipment for over seventy-five years: How can researchers reliably infer individual-level habit from combination (ecological) information? In political technological know-how, this query arises whilst individual-level surveys are unavailable (for example, neighborhood or comparative electoral politics), unreliable (racial politics), inadequate (political geography), or infeasible (political history). This ecological inference challenge additionally confronts researchers in different parts of significant importance in public coverage, and different educational disciplines, starting from epidemiology and advertising and marketing to sociology and quantitative historical past. even supposing many have tried to make such cross-level inferences, students agree that every one current equipment yield very erroneous conclusions concerning the global. during this quantity, Gary King lays out a unique--and reliable--solution to this venerable problem.

King starts off with a qualitative evaluate, readable even via these and not using a statistical historical past. He then unifies the it sounds as if diversified findings within the methodological literature, in order that just one aggregation challenge is still solved. He then provides his resolution, in addition to empirical reviews of the answer that come with over 16,000 comparisons of his estimates from genuine mixture facts to the recognized individual-level resolution. the tactic works in practice.

King's method to the ecological inference challenge will allow empirical researchers to enquire sizeable questions that experience heretofore proved unanswerable, and stream ahead fields of inquiry during which growth has been stifled by way of this problem.

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